FAQ

Find answers to our commonly asked questions

  • Tile Types

    Are rectified tiles more expensive to lay?

    Yes — Rectified tiles have square edges that allow for smaller, more precise grout lines. Laying them requires more care and attention for a precise, clean result, which is why they generally require more time to lay than a non-rectified tile and therefore, cost more to lay.

    What is the difference between rectified and non-rectified tiles?

    Rectified tiles are precision cut to size, trued and squared off, with 90 degree edges. Non-rectified tiles are pressed to nominal sizes and have rounded off edges, sometimes referred to as a cushion edge. Rectified tiles have a consistent size; non-rectified tiles have a variance in their size.

    What is the difference between a wall tile and a floor tile?

    Wall tiles are typically less dense, thinner and lighter that floor tiles, making it easier to adhere to the wall. They are also often more porous and are more water absorbent. Wall tiles typically are able to bear less weight and have a softer glaze, making them unsuitable as flooring.

    What is the difference between a polished finish and a gloss finish tile?

    A gloss tile has a shiny glaze or surface. A polished tile has been mechanically polished down by some kind of polishing stone. It typically has a flatter, shinier, mirror-smooth finish due to the polishing process in which up to 1 mm of the material’s surface is removed.

    What finishes are available for porcelain tile?

    Polished or semi-polished: After firing this type of tile is mechanically polished to a reflective finish.

    Glazed: A glaze is applied as the top layer of the tile. The finish may be smooth, matt or glossy.

    Matt or natural finish: A tile with this finish typically comes out of the kiln and does not undergo any or much further processing.

    Rock or structured finish: This tile has a very textured finish, with ridges and dips; they are often used in external applications because of their anti-slip properties.

    What is the difference between glazed porcelain and full body porcelain tiles?

    Porcelain tiles are an extremely versatile option; with today’s rapidly evolving technology, they are produced in a large variety of finishes and appearances, mimicking nature or defining new contemporary styles. Their strength, durability and low absorbency lend themselves to internal and external uses, however; glazed porcelain and full body porcelain have different characteristics, each with their own benefits.

    Glazed porcelain has a glass wear layer or hard finish usually coloured, then applied to the surface of machine made clay tiles. The term glaze can also refer to the material or mixture from which the coating is made.

    Advantages of glazed porcelain tiles:

    • Strong and dense tile
    • Chemicial resistant
    • Frost resistant
    • Non-porous; the glaze is an impervious finish that protects the tile from stains and moisture.
    • Available in a large selection of colour and sizes.

    Glazed tiles are best suited in residential, up to light commercial settings. Manufacturers measure and rate the wearability of glazed tiles with what is called a PEI (Porcelain Enamel Institute) rating.

    PEI 1 Tiles suitable as Wall tiles.
    PEI 2 Tiles suited for general Residential areas where they will be walked on by soft sole, with very small amounts of scratching dirt.
    PEI 3 Tiles suited for all Residential areas.
    PEI 4 Tiles suited for all Residential areas and some light Commercial areas.
    PEI 5 Tiles are suite for all Residential areas and light to medium Commercial areas.

    If you have further questions, refer to the manufacturer’s recommendations, or contact your sales representative.

    The term full body tile, also known as a through body tile, refers to the tile being consistent in composition through out the body of the tile. The colour and texture runs through the entire dimensional thickness of the tile. Full bodied porcelain is less permeable to water; its body is 0.0% -0.5% absorbent to water

    Advantages of full body tile

    • Strong and dense tile that can withstand high surface traffic.
    • Chemical resistant.
    • Does not have a glaze that may wear off or scratch.
    • The colour of tile runs all the way through the tile.
    • When produced with an anti slip finish, they can be installed in wet areas and areas where slip resistant floors are required.
    • Frost resistant.
    • Water absorption is less than 0.5%.
    • Available in a large range of colours, sizes and textures.
    • Can be produced to look like Stone, Granite, Marble, Terracotta, Wood, Concrete and Metal
    What are the types of porcelain tile?

    There are two basic types of porcelain, glazed porcelain and full body porcelain, also known as through body porcelain.

    What are the main differences between ceramic and porcelain tile?

    A. Tiles offer versatility in performance, as well as appearance, with a wide scope of designs to fulfil planning and creative criteria.

    While both ceramic and porcelain tiles may be elegant, some consider, porcelain to be higher in quality due to its performance characteristics. Porcelain is pressed at higher pressures and fired at high temperatures, resulting in a dense, durable, frost resistant tile with low absorbency, resulting in a higher performing tile, which is applicable to a larger range of applications.

    iii. The composition, production methods and performance characteristics differ between ceramic and porcelain tiles as outlined in the table below.

    Table 1.1 Ceramic and Porcelain Characteristics.
    Ceramic Tiles Porcelain Tiles
    • Clay based biscuit
    • Lower firing temperature.
    • High to medium water absorption
    • Pressed at a lower pressure
    • Lighter and less dense
    • Clay base with a mix of feldspar, flint and silica
    • Higher firing temperature
    • Low water absorption
    • The biscuit is pressed at higher pressure
    • Heavier, very dense and very durable
    • Frost and heat resistant
    What are the types of tiles?

    Ceramic: Ceramic is man made from clay and is fired at high temperatures in a kiln. It is made available in glazed and unglazed finishes, as both wall and floor tiles.

    Porcelain:Porcelain is a ceramic tile, but made with the addition of feldspar, flint and silica. It is pressed, then kiln fired at 1200-1300 degrees Celsius; its composition and production methods result in a low absorbency, uniform, hardwearing tile. Porcelain is available in glazed or unglazed finishes, as wall and floor tiles.

    Terracotta: Terracotta, meaning ‘cooked earth’, is man made from clay. This tile is typically very absorbent.

    Mosaic: Mosaic tiles are man made from ceramic, porcelain, glass or natural stone and are available glazed or unglazed. They are typically a small format tile, less than 35cm2 and are netted on a sheet.

    Natural Stone: Natural stone is a natural resource, composed of aggregate minerals, taking upwards of millions of years to form. Stone, such as limestone, marble, granite and slate, is extracted from the earth through quarries; it is inherently porous and requires sealing. It has a high absorbency and is high maintenance.

  • Our Tiles

    Do we have heat resistant tiles?

    Tiles are naturally fire resistant. As a part of the manufacturing process, ceramic tiles are fired in a kiln at over 1000 degrees Celsius; their material make up is inert until such extreme temperatures, as they are not made from combustible materials. Please contact your sales rep if you have any questions or concerns.

    PEI 1 Tiles suitable as Wall tiles.
    PEI 2 Tiles suited for general Residential areas where they will be walked on by soft sole, with very small amounts of scratching dirt.
    PEI 3 Tiles suited for all Residential areas.
    PEI 4 Tiles suited for all Residential areas and some light Commercial areas.
    PEI 5 Tiles are suite for all Residential areas and light to medium Commercial areas.

    *This scale determines the resistance of a glazed surface in relation the traffic and wear that the surface can endure without damage to its appearance.

    If you have further questions, refer to the manufacturer’s recommendations, or contact your sales representative.

    Can our tiles be used for facades?

    Yes, our tiles can be used in conjunction with mechanical fixing systems for building facades. Please contact your sales rep to discuss your options.

    Do we carry tiles that may be used with in-floor heating?

    Yes, as part of a system, our tiles can be used with in-floor heating.

    Do we carry mosaics tiles that are safe for use in pools?

    Yes — We stock glass, glazed porcelain and full bodied porcelain tiles that are safe for use in pools.

    Can our tiles be used to contribute to points on Green Star Rated projects?

    Yes — We stock products that are eligible for credits in the Materials sections of the Green Star — Office Interiors, Education, Healthcare and Multi-Unit Residential rating systems. Our tiles meet the credit criteria for Durability, Eco-Preferred Content and Environmental Management Systems. Please contact us to find out if the tile you are selecting qualifies for credits and to obtain the applicable required documentation.

    Do we import eco-friendly products?

    Yes! Massa Imports is proud to be working closely with world class tile manufacturers that are not only leaders in design, but also in sustainability, who have demonstrated commitments to environmentally sound practices. As such, we stock tiles that are EU Eco label certified and those that are eligible for credits in the Green Star rating system, the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) green building rating system and the 6 Star Standard for Australian homes. For more information, see our Sustainability section or contact your sales representative.

    Do our products come with a guarantee?

    Our products come from manufacturers that adhere to a high level of standards. As our manufacturers stand behind their reputation and the quality of their products, all of our ceramic and porcelain tiles come with a manufacturer’s guarantee. As these vary from product to product, please contact your sales representative for the applicable documentation. For more information, read about Our Guarantee.

    What types of tile do we carry?

    We stock a wide range of ceramic, porcelain and mosaic tiles from high quality manufacturers in Europe and around the world, which can be used in a wide number of applications in residential, commercial and industrial projects.

  • Selecting the Right Tile

    Which tiles are best suited for outdoor uses?

    Vitrified or full bodied porcelain are frost resistant, UV resistant, chemical resistant and virtually non-porous, resulting in a perfect pairing for outdoor settings. Their water absorption is between 0.0%-0.5%, meaning that rain, pool water and wet settings won’t affect their integrity.

    What types of slip resistance tests are there?

    Slip resistance recommendations have been described as a reference for commercial projects. The following is a list of common types of slip resistance tests that are measured.

    • Wet pendulum slip resistance test
    • Dry floor friction slip resistance test
    • Wet barefoot slip resistance test
    • Oil wet ramp slip resistance test
    How do I determine which slip resistance is best suited for my project?

    There are many factors that need to be considered when determining which finish is best suited to your project. We recommend that you first determine what the intended use is in your space. Other factors to consider when designing to prevent slippage are:

    • a. Contamination of the tile: Ex. Will dirt or water be tracked onto the tiles?
    • b. Footwear: Ex. What kind of footwear will be worn in the area?
    • c. Human behaviour: Ex. Will the tiles be in a high traffic area? Will people be running in the area?
    • d. Use: Ex. Will children or elderly people be using the space? Will people be wearing socks or shoes?
    • e. The environment: Ex. How does the overall building design affect the space? Are there ramps or stairs?

    For further advise on specific areas in commercial projects, we suggest consulting with the Standards Australia HB -197 recommendations on pedestrian flooring selection. For more information and technical help, please contact your sales representative.

    How do I select the right tile for my project?

    There are many factors that weigh in when deciding on the right tile for your project. To begin with, consider the following questions when making your decision:

    • What is the intended application of the tile?
    • Does this area have a high level of foot traffic?
    • Is this area likely to be exposed to water?
    • What is the best surface to match the projects use in terms of maintenance and durability?
    • What is the overall aesthetic that I am trying to achieve?
    • What is the budget you are working towards?

    The answers to these questions should describe which attributes you are looking for in a tile. Consulting with an expert to answer your project specific questions is always recommended.

    Still unsure? Our sales team is here to help navigate through the selection process.

  • Tiles vs Other Flooring

    Can the use of tiles on your new home, renovation, alteration or addition, contribute to a 6 star energy rated project?

    Yes, you can benefit from using tiles in a thoughtfully designed house, by saving on heating and cooling costs and increasing thermal comfort.

    Using the principles of passive solar design, you can maximize your energy efficiency and take advantage of your building’s orientation to the sun by using your tile flooring, laid over concrete slab, to store solar energy and heat that passes through your windows. The tiles and concrete work together as a thermal mass, absorbing heat during the day and releasing it as the temperature drops at night. Wall tiles can also contribute in the same manner; typically, dark coloured tiles will attract and store more heat.

    With unlimited design potential, innovations in tiles extend beyond the aesthetic, down to their eco-friendly make up. We stock both recycled content tiles and green certified tiles; use tiles to reach your project’s green potential. Read more about our eco-friendly approach. Consult with your architect, builder, or environmental designer to maximize your savings with tiles.

    Tiles vs. Carpet

    Tiles provide a better indoor air quality than carpets. Ceramic tiles do not contain any VOCs, so there is no potential for the release of harmful chemical compounds into the air. Porcelain tiles are non porous meaning they do not harbour bacteria or store dust, which can aggravate asthma or be detrimental in health care facilities. While carpet can be quite flammable, tiles will not burn or release toxic gases. In addition to these benefits, tile is more durable; tiles’ 50-year life expectancy of surpasses carpet’s 6 yrs life span.Tiles vs. Timber flooring

    Porcelain timber concept tiles are now offered in a fantastic variety of options. They not only mimic nature’s unpredictable, intricate patterns, but are low maintenance and sustainable alternative to timber flooring. Timber tiles achieve the look of wood, but make sanding and refinishing a thing of the past.

    In areas exposed to dampness and water, porcelain is a superb alternative that will not warp or require refinishing and can have anti-slip properties to increase safety.

    Tile also absorbs more heat than timber, acting as a thermal sponge or conductor. Used with good passive design, it can result in cost savings on your energy bills.

    What is the life expectancy of tile flooring?

    Tiles have a longer life than almost any other flooring, when laid correctly; the life expectancy is 50 years.

    For a whole picture view, Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) should be used for a thorough consideration of the flooring in any assessment of project costs. In a 2005 study, the Tile Council of North America launched an extensive LCA study, comparing 12 types of flooring, including tiles. The comparisons took into account factors such as initial costs, installations costs, annual maintenance costs, disposal costs and inflation, to determine the true cost of flooring.

    An expensive product could save you money, and your budget, in the long term and far outlast that cheaper product.

    Table 1.3 Life Cycle Costs of Floor Finishes per Year
    Floor Finish Installed Cost USD* Life Cycle Cost USD* Expected Life (y) Cost Per Year*
    Quarry Tile $6.83 $16.13 50 $0.32
    Glazed Ceramic Floor Tile $7.00 $16.30 50 $0.33
    Glazed Porcelain $8.34 $17.64 50 $0.35
    Mosaic Tile $8.20 $17.50 50 $0.35
    Unglazed Porcelain $8.30 $17.60 50 $0.35
    Natural Hardwood $9.31 $20.80 50 $0.42
    Travertine-Turkish $12.50 $21.80 50 $0.44
    Marble $21.00 $30.30 50 $0.61
    Laminate $8.84 $17.77 25 $0.71
    Man-Made Hardwood $9.58 $18.51 25 $0.74
    Portland Cement Terrazzo $14.88 $24.27 30 $0.81
    Stained Concrete $12.40 $24.60 25 $0.98
    Carpet $3.22 $6.50 6 $1.08
    Resin Terrazzo $8.50 $16.53 15 $1.10
    Sheet Vinyl $6.90 $13.90 10 $1.39
    Poured Epoxy $8.18 $15.18 10 $1.52
    VCT $3.91 $18.35 10 $1.83

    * Per square foot | Cost in USD Table sourced from “Tile is the Natural Choice”, 2009. This LCA study was commissioned by the Tile Council of North America and carried out by Scharf Godfrey in an independently run study, in 2005.

  • Tiles vs Natural Stones

    Tiles vs. natural stone

    Natural stone takes upwards of millions of years to form and replenish; some consider it to be a non-renewable resource. While natural stone is desirable due to its unique and varied display of colour and pattern, it is porous, with a high absorbency and therefore prone to staining. Natural stone is high maintenance with all the stain removal from daily wear, sealing and re-finishing that it demands.

    New technologies in digital printing and manufacturing processes have resulted in awe inspiring stone concept tiles, produced with sustainability and durability in mind. The look, feel and unique characteristics of stone have been translated into low maintenance tiles that have a no fuss, long life span.

  • Tile Installation

    Can I grout my floor tiles right after fixing them?

    Tiles should be left to cure and set for 24 hours (dependant on the type of adhesive you are using) to prevent disturbing the tile before it has completed bonded with the adhesive. If you have used a rapid set adhesive, you may be able to grout sooner.

    How do I select a floor adhesive?

    As each project may have a different substrate or set of conditions, always consult with your tile merchant and adhere to manufacturer’s instructions when selecting a wall adhesive.

    What size expansion joint should I use?

    Expansion joints should installed with consideration of orientation and movement of bounding walls and construction and be determined in accordance with the Australian Standard 3958.1.

    Can I tile over wooden flooring?

    Clean, flat and rigid wood flooring can be suitable, as long as it can bear the extra load of the tiles without flexing. Generally, a wooden floor should be prepared with a ceramic tile underlay for best results.

    What kind of surface preparation do I need to do before tiling on the floor?

    The surface must be flat to ensure an easier, quick and better finish. It should be prepared flat. A tolerance of 4mm over a distance of 2m is acceptable. Otherwise an uneven finish may result.

    Can I grout my wall tiles right after fixing them?

    Tiles should be left to cure and set for a minimum of 16 hours to prevent disturbing the tile before it has completed bonded with the adhesive.

    What size trowel should I use?

    Tile trowel should be proportionate to the size of the tile. As per the Australian Tile Council, some guidelines are as follows:

    Tile Size Trowel Size
    152mm x 152mm 6mm x 6mm notch
    200mm x 200mm 8mm x 8mm notch
    250mm x 250mm 10mm x 10mm notch
    300 mm x 300mm 12mm x 12mm notch
    Do I need a flat surface for wall tiling?

    An even, flat surface is vital; otherwise the tiled area may have a faulty, unsatisfactory finish.

    Can I tile over plasterboard?

    Yes, provided that the plasterboard meets some minimum requirements; it should be well supported and have a minimum thickness of 10mm.

    How do I select a wall adhesive?

    As each project may have a different substrate or set of conditions, always consult with your tile merchant and adhere to manufacturer’s instructions when selecting a wall adhesive. The Australian Standard 3958.1 states that residential wall tiling requires a minimum adhesive coverage of 65%, wet areas require minimum adhesive coverage of 90% and external walls require a minimum adhesive coverage of 90%.

    Does it cost more to lay rectified tiles compared to non-rectified tiles?

    Rectified tiles have square edges that allow for smaller, more precise grout lines. Laying them requires more care and attention for a precise, clean result, which is why they generally require more time to lay than a non-rectified tile and therefore, cost more to lay.

    Can I tile over linoleum?

    Yes, you can tile over linoleum. You must prepare a clean, level surface that is free from contaminants (such as paint, dirt and dust) and soundly affixed. To adhere the tiles to this surface, please follow your adhesive manufacturer’s recommendations, or consult with a local tradesman.

    Can I tile over existing tiles?

    Yes, you can tile over existing tiles providing that they are undamaged. You must prepare a clean, level surface that is free from contaminants (such as paint, dirt and dust) and soundly affixed. To adhere the tiles to this surface, please follow your adhesive manufacturer’s recommendations, or consult with a local tradesman.

    Can I tile over sheetrock?

    Yes, you can tile over sheetrock. You must prepare a clean, level surface that is free from contaminants (such as paint, dirt and dust) and soundly affixed. To adhere the tiles to this surface, please follow your adhesive manufacturer’s recommendations, or consult with a local tradesman.

    Can I tile over a brick fireplace?

    Yes, you can tile over a brick fireplace. You must prepare a clean, level surface that is free from contaminants (such as paint, dirt and dust) and soundly affixed. To adhere the tiles to this surface, please follow your adhesive manufacturer’s recommendations, or consult with a local tradesman.

  • Tile Maintenance & Cleaning

    Why is my grout cracking?

    Cracked grout is usually caused by a larger problem than meets the eye. It could be the result of seasonal movement around or underneath the structure. The fix could simply require more joisting to minimize the deflection of the floor, or it could require a complex resolve. Please consult with a professional for advice.

    Notice

    Cleaning and maintenance program depends essentially on the density of traffic, the condition of the surrounding area where the tiles are installed and the nature of dirt to which the floors or walls are exposed. Thus, routine cleaning and maintenance must be performed according to specific requirements.

    Any spillage of tea, coffee, paint, permanent marker, hair dye, nail polish and the like on the ties must be immediately cleaned to prevent severe staining.

    It is not advisable to use strong acid solution or its compound for cleaning.

    Do not use metal tools to scrape the dirt from the surface of the tiles.

    For Regular Maintenance

    1. Wipe off dusts from the surface of the tiles with a regular schedule.

    2. Dilute methylated spirits with water or vinegar with water for cleaning.

    3. Spread the cleaning solution on the surface and rub with the use of a cloth mop. Rinsing is not necessary.

    4. Allow the cleaned area to dry before permitting pedestrian passage.

    During Installation

    1. Do not allow any tile adhesive or excess grout to dry on the proper surface of the tile. Unwanted adhesive or excess grout must be cleaned a few minutes after application or before the material becomes dry.

    2. Cleaning should be performed according to tile adhesive or grout manufacturer’s method and instruction.

    3. For protection against dirt, scratches and incidental mutilation, the tiles already laid and fixed must be covered within the duration of the construction.

  • Definition of Terms

    Definition of terms
    Body The structural portion, such as the clay material or mixture, of a ceramic tile as distinct from the glaze. It is the portion that is put into moulds and pressed into shape.
    Bullnose Tile Also called cap tiles. These tiles feature a rounded edge used to finish walls or to turn outside corners. They are also applied to the leading edge of steps.
    Cladding Covering, particularly wall covering, usually fixed mechanically at heights above 3 metres.
    Cove Tiles Cove tiles feature a rounded top edge and are used to finish off or decorate splashbacks.
    Cushion Edge Is an unrectified rounded or soft edge tile. Also known as a pillow edge.
    Double-Fired Tiles Glazed tiles produced by an initial firing of the tile body and then a second firing once the glaze or decoration has been applied.
    Dust Pressed Tile Tiles formed by the compaction of finely milled raw materials in moulds before firing. The majority of indoor tiles are produced this way.
    Expansion Joints Separation provided between adjoining parts of a structure to allow movement at stress points to prevent uncontrolled cracking.
    Finishes Textural or visual characteristics of a tile surface. For glazed tile this may be high gloss, satin or matt. Generally, for porcelain tiles, finish can be natural, polished, lappato, honed or lapped. Other finishes include bush hammered, raised, embossed, dimpled, etched, scored, ribbed, etc.
    Firing The final step of the tile manufacturing process is when the raw material is ‘baked’ at high temperature — up to 1250C for porcelain tiles — to harden the tile body and glaze.
    Frost Resistance The ability of certain ceramic tiles to withstand freeze/thaw conditions with minimal effect. Frost resistance of ceramic tile is dependent on the tile’s porosity and water absorption levels.
    Glaze A glass wear layer or hard finish that is usually coloured then applied to the surface of machine-made tiles. This glassy opaque or transparent coating fired or fused onto the ceramic tile body, creates a smooth, impermeable surface. The glaze can also refer to the material or mixture from which the coating is made.
    Glazed Porcelain The tile is made from porcelain clays but glazed for aesthetic effect. Glazed porcelain tiles are dense, strong and may require cutting with a wet saw.
    Kiln An oven, furnace, or heated enclosure used for processing a substance by burning, firing, or drying.
    Lippage In finished installations, lippage refers to a condition where one edge of a tile is higher than an adjacent tile. Excessive lippage can cause trips and falls.
    Polishing This stage takes place after firing. The natural product is put through a number of mechanical grinding processes to achieve a reflective finish.
    Rectification Is the process of cutting the finished product into the nominated tile’s size; this is also the process in which the tile is trued and squared off.
    Full Body Tile This term refers to a tile being consistent in composition throughout the body of the tile. The colour and the texture run through the entire dimensional thickness of the tile.
    PEI rating The measure of abrasion resistance of the glaze on a tile.
    Porcelain Stoneware Dust-pressed ceramic tiles with water absorption levels less than 0.5 per cent in accordance with ISO Classification B1a. Featuring high mechanical strength and resistance to staining. The surface of these tiles may be polished.
    Porosity Volume of pores relative to volume of tile body and capable of absorbing moisture (and therefore stains).
    Quarry tiles Traditional term for single extruded natural clay tiles with a water absorption level not exceeding 6 per cent. Can be glazed or unglazed.
    Rectified Rectified tiles typically exhibit a very square edge — cutting or grinding the edges off a tile allows the dimensions and squareness to be precisely controlled. Rectified tiles are installed with minimal grout lines.
    Sealers Clear coating sometimes applied to unglazed floor tiles to protect the surface from grease spills or staining materials (also known as sealants).
    Self-Levelling Compound Some screeded floors are not entirely flat or smooth. Application of a thin coat of a two-part levelling compound will provide a flat surface, suitable for tiling. These materials will dry rapidly.
    Slip Resistance Tiles Tiles treated to prevent slipping either by adding an abrasive grit to the glaze or a texture to the design of the tile surface structure such as ribs, studs etc.
    Unglazed Tiles Unglazed tiles derive their colour and texture from their raw materials or may be coloured by means of oxides dispersed throughout the body. They are generally fully vitrified.
    Vitrified Porcelain Vitreous tiles absorb less than 3 per cent moisture whereas fully vitrified tiles are made from fine particles and fired to high temperatures (1250C) which results in a denser tile with extremely low porosity (moisture absorption of less than 0.5 per cent). Porcelain stoneware tiles are fully vitrified making a layer of glaze unnecessary for the tile to be impervious to water.
    Wastage Generally add 10 per cent to the amount required for wastage due to cutting etc. If the installation is complicated or a lot of cutting is involved, the amount for wastage may need to be increased to 15 per cent.
    Water Absorption The measure of moisture absorbed by the biscuit or body. In the case of porcelain, the water absorption rate is <0.5%.